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A Timeline of the Inquisitions

1220:
Dominican order founded.
1231:
Pope Gregory IX authorizes Dominicans to examine Cathar and other Christian heretics in southern France and Italy, the so-called "medieval inquisitions."
1357:
Nicolas Eymeric compiles his manual of instruction for inquisitors, the Directorium Inquisitorum.
1391:
Massacres of Jews across Spain; thousands forced to convert to Christianity.
1460s:
Alfonso de Espina writes The Fortress of the Faith against Jews, Muslims and other Enemies of the Christian Faith.
1478:
Pope Sixtus IV authorizes the Spanish Inquisition at the request of Ferdinand and Isabella, the "Catholic Monarchs" of Spain. (1:3, 2:1-2)
1480:
First Spanish Inquisition tribunal becomes active in Seville; targets converts from Judaism (conversos) suspected of remaining loyal to their ancestral religion.
1483:
Tomás de Torquemada named first Inquisitor-General of the Spanish Inquisition; organized inquisitorial tribunals in Jaén, Córdoba and Ciudad Real.
1492:
Jews expelled from Spain; last Muslim enclaves in Spain seized.
1496:
Jews expelled from Portugal; those remaining forced to convert according to edict which followed.
1515:
Pope Leo X institutes pre-press censorship; not enforced.
1517:
Martin Luther nails his "Ninety-Five Theses" on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg; Reformation begins.
1536:
Calvin publishes the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion.
1540:
First auto-da-fé conducted by the Portuguese Inquisition; Jesuit order founded.
1542:
Bernardino Ochino, head of Franciscan Capuchin order, flees Italy, converts to Protestantism.
Pope Paul III establishes the Roman Inquisition.
Limited press censorship, banning of Ochino’s works.
1545:
Opening session of the Council of Trent.
1553:
Michael Servetus burned alive by Calvinist authorities in Geneva after fleeing persecution in Spain.
1559:
Pope Paul IV’s Pauline Index.
Trials of prominent Spanish Protestants in Valladolid and Seville; focus of Spanish Inquisition temporarily shifts to Protestantism.
1563:
Last session of the Council of Trent.
1564:
Tridentine Index published.
1570:
Spanish Inquisition establishes tribunals in Mexico and Peru.
1571:
Congregation of the Index established by Pope Pius V.
1588:
Pope Sixtus V creates Congregation of the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition.
1600s:
Royal pressure to allow Jews to return to Portugal; Inquisition responds with increased anti-semitic and anti-converso persecutions. (see autos-da-fé)
1633:
Trial of Galileo Galilei by Roman Inquisition.
1720s:
Wave of anti-converso trials worldwide. (see autos-da-fé)
1807:
Napoleon defeats Spain, Spanish Inquisition halted.
1815:
Spanish Inquisition restored by Ferdinand VII; continued debates over its existence.
1834:
Spanish Inquisition officially ended.
1843:
Edgar Allen Poe publishes The Pit and the Pendulum.
1908:
Roman Inquisition becomes Holy Office.
1965:
Pope Paul VI reorganizes Holy Office, renames it Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith.
1966:
Index of Forbidden Books abolished.

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